Excessive or inadequate secretion of thyroid hormone can lead to severe disorders. The thyroid gland secretes vital hormones that regulate body development, differentiation, and metabolism, while also affecting all cells by distributing these hormones in the bloodstream throughout the body. The person's cardiovascular and other organ systems, as well as their psychosocial behavior, are significantly affected by the short- and long-term consequences of any disruption to the thyroid gland's function.

The thyroid gland can function improperly due to environmental or genetic factors. Diseases caused by antibodies that are triggered by similar factors or sometimes by previous infections may cause the immune system to identify the thyroid gland as a foreign structure. Thyroid gland disorders caused by antibodies can stimulate the gland, similar to pituitary hormones, resulting in hyperactivity. In some cases, the gland may eventually be eliminated through humoral or cellular means, leading to dysfunction in the form of fibrous tissue.

Rapid weight gain, excessive fatigue, weakness, low blood pressure, menstrual cycle changes, dull, dry, and brittle skin and hair due to slowed metabolism in hypothyroidism.

Accelerated metabolism can lead to rapid weight loss, insomnia, restlessness, excessive sweating, nervousness, anxiety, palpitations, and irregularities in the menstrual cycle. These changes can have negative impacts on both work and personal relationships and may be mistakenly attributed to daily work stress.

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